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Maria Amjad
Naima Nawaz
Saira Akhtar
Ayesha Riaz


Pakistan experiences high rates of acute malnutrition, with stunting and underweight children surpassing emergency levels. Additionally, micronutrient deficiencies, including iron, vitamin A, and vitamin D, are prevalent among young women. To tackle malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies, food fortification is seen as a viable and promising approach. Food fortification is considered a cost-effective strategy. Despite its potential and the initiation of different Food Fortification Programs in Pakistan, the awareness and usage of fortified food in Pakistan remain insufficiently explored. Exploration of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards a particular topic is deemed important for its promotion and acceptance. Therefore, in this study Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of people toward food fortification at the household level in Punjab, Pakistan is investigated. The study covered four randomly selected districts: Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan, and Sargodha. The sample size consisted of 500 households, and respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. From each district, one tehsil, five urban Union Councils (UCs), and 25 females from each selected UC were chosen at random, resulting in 125 females from one district and 500 respondents overall. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews and then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The level of knowledge of study participants about fortified food was relatively low. However, the attitude towards using fortified food was generally positive about the perceived positive impacts of fortified food on health. Regarding practices, respondents mainly used fortified wheat flour and fortified ghee/oil at the household level. Regression analysis revealed that age, education, family size, and occupation were statistically related (P<0.05) to their awareness of fortified food. A statistically significant relationship (P <0.05) was also established between the socio-economic attributes of respondents and their Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices towards fortified food, thus the null hypothesis was accepted. Moreover, the skill development initiatives for the women to prepare fortified food at the households level can become a source of guidance and motivation for the aspirants of fortified food use.

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Maria Amjad, Naima Nawaz, Saira Akhtar, & Ayesha Riaz. (2024). NEXUS BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTES AND FORTIFIED FOOD: A KAP STUDY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN. International Journal of Contemporary Issues in Social Sciences, 3(2), 649–657. Retrieved from