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Dr Kamran Khan
Aisha Noor
Shahryar Khan


This article deals with the complicated civil-military relations in Pakistan and Turkey, scrutinizing how civilian rulers have been jockeying with steadily ascendant armed forces over the decades. It makes the deep study of the historical realities as well as the current trends and future possibilities in the efforts to fully discovering the complex balancing act that will make for oversight of democratic governance while still making room for the military influence. Insights for Pakistan and Turkey tackles the above issue; nevertheless, they can teach us how military factors dominate political, economic, and foreign policies. Demonstrating resilience despite the leadership changes and occasional periods of constitutional rule, the military continues to remain the power behind the given government, and therefore, the current authorities are limited to the issues of the leadership dominance by the military. Attention is drawn to the weight of a well-established democratic order and appropriate constitutional basis in maintaining democratic norms, with focus on the judiciary and the media who are major players in the politics as a counter balancing factor in excessive military dominion. Moreover, the external factors and regional dynamics in the civil-military relations are analyzed with purpose of addressing the Pakistan's strategic importance and Turkey's special place as decisive factors in their countries' political spheres on the scope of Researchers explored the causes and effect of the different external factors that play a role in determining which institution has the upper hand. Herein comes this article briefing in a great extent of these complexities of maintaining the balance between army control and democracy in these countries to comprehend as well the similar themes occurred at any more place in the world.

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How to Cite
Dr Kamran Khan, Aisha Noor, & Shahryar Khan. (2024). MILITARY AND CIVILIAN LEADERSHIP DYNAMICS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN AND TURKEY. International Journal of Contemporary Issues in Social Sciences, 3(2), 268–274. Retrieved from