PAKISTAN-US RELATIONS DURING OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (2001-2014): CARROT AND STICK POLICY AT WORK

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Muhammad Ali
Riaz Nadeem
Shahzad Nadeem

Abstract

At the time of September 11, 2001 attacks, Pakistan-US relations were at lowest ebb. Aftermaths of said attacks not only reshaped global political scenario, leading to a focus on combating terrorism, notably through "Operation Enduring Freedom" in Afghanistan, but also rapidly improved strained relations between Pakistan and the United States, prompting the U.S. to seek Pakistan's cooperation due to its strategic location. This study attempts to examine how the US managed to secure Pakistan’s cooperation before launching Operation Enduring Freedom while employing coercive diplomacy and "carrot and stick" approach which hybridized the relationship, and investigates how the two nations cooperated in the war against terror despite their differing interests and concerns as well as the complex relationship between Pakistan and the US throughout the Operation Enduring Freedom (2001-2014). Through usage of the realist framework, it analyses the strategies used by the US to secure Pakistan's support, including coercion and incentives, and elaborates major areas of cooperation e.g. concessions, financial and military aid, as well as irritants and frictions including trust deficit, divergent interests and insensitivity of US towards reservation of Pakistan etc.

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Muhammad Ali, Riaz Nadeem, & Shahzad Nadeem. (2024). PAKISTAN-US RELATIONS DURING OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (2001-2014): CARROT AND STICK POLICY AT WORK. International Journal of Contemporary Issues in Social Sciences, 3(2), 2754–2769. Retrieved from https://ijciss.org/index.php/ijciss/article/view/1020
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